D  U  A  T





Vladimir Pakhomov


The capsule version from the book "The Mystery of the Calendar"



"Let no one unversed in geometry enter here."


Contents (part V, chapter 7)


• Duat
• A Starry Clock
• The Upper Point
• The Age of Orion
• The Crossing Point
• As Above, So Below
• The Giza Pyramids
• The Fourth Star
• The Great Celestial Eye


"The Orion Mystery" by R.Bauval and A.Gilbert focuses on the constellation Orion and its alignment to the three pyramids on the Giza plateau. The Orion Correlation theory says that the three pyramids correspond to the three stars of Orion's Belt.

That is not so. The forgotten civilization has left to us more exact and important information. I did not want to prove or to demolish this theory. I studied the ancient cryptogram and this information has helped me to find the Duat. Here I shall tell about it.





From the Egyptian mythology:

Duat: Ancient Egyptian Underworld. Three different descriptions of the Underworld are provided by the three sacred texts: The Book of Caverns, The Book of Am Duat and The Book of Gates.

The Duat sky region is the place through which the Pharaohs believed that their souls would travel after death. It was the starting point of the Pharaoh's journey back to the stars from whence he came.  The Duat separates the land of the living from the land of the dead. The very similar "starry" myths were kept and on the American continent.

The five-pointed star within a circle was the Egyptian symbol of the Duat. This image you can see on the top of this page.


"Egyptologists have made some very bad educational guesses about the meaning of the word Duat as "Netherworld." They know perfectly well that there is nothing "nether" about the word nor is there any known connection with some kind of "world." ...Dua means "dawning" and when the t ending is added, Duat should mean "the dawning Eye"."

— Clesson H. Harvey


Yes, this is a very good comparison that has been undersong. I shall speak about the important astronomical sense of the Duat.


G.Hancock wrote in the book "Heaven's Mirror":

"In fact the Duat had very specific celestial co-ordinates.
...the Duat had been conceived of by the ancient Egyptians as having been "localized in the eastern part of the sky" ...
the oldest texts... tell us: "Orion has been enveloped by the Duat while he who lives on the Horizon purifies himself.
...This is a true observation of nature, and it really appears as though the stars are swallowed up each morning by the increasing glow of the dawn."


I have found these "very specific celestial co-ordinates" of the Duat.



A Starry Clock


"Horatio! There are more things in heaven and earth,
than are dreamt of in your philosophy."
— William Shakespeare, "Hamlet".


In my view the possibility of a serious "black hole" in scientific knowledge about recent prehistory is plausible and worthy of consideration.

At first a few definitions from the Glossary of astronomical terms:

Celestial poles
The two points where the "projection" of the Earth's axis of rotation meet the celestial sphere. As the Earth rotates, the sky appears, to an observer on the Earth's surface, to rotate around the two "fixed" celestial poles (the north and south celestial poles).


Celestial equator
A great circle formed by projecting the earth's equatorial plane onto the celestial sphere. The celestial equator is 90 degrees from both the north and south celestial poles.


Galactic equator
The plane of our galaxy, the Milky Way, projected onto the celestial sphere. The galactic equator and the celestial equator are inclined at an angle of about 62 degrees.


The apparent path of the Sun against the stars over the course of a year. The ecliptic marks the "plane" of the Earth's orbit, and is inclined to the celestial equator by roughly 23.5°. All the major planets are always within a few degrees north or south of the line of the ecliptic. The constellations through which the ecliptic passes are called the zodiac.


The slow rotation of the celestial poles in a ≈23.5° circle centered on the ecliptic poles, a complete rotation taking 25,760 years. The effect of precession is to slowly change the positions of the celestial poles against the stars, and also to slowly change the equatorial coordinates of a "fixed" object such as a star or galaxy.

Look at the image created by the astronomical program in the Ecliptic coordinate system.


The rotation of the North celestial pole
(counter-clockwise) in a circle centered on
the North ecliptic pole.


H - Upper position (in relation to the galactic
equator) of the North celestial pole.

L - Lower position of the North celestial pole.
G - Line of the Galactic equator.


The computer software I used to access this
sky chart is: SkyMap Pro 7 and SkyChart III.


  • In the Upper point (H) the North celestial pole was at about 4493 BC.

  • In the Lower point (L) the North celestial pole will be at about 8306 AD.

  • Now North celestial pole is located beside the North Star (Polaris, a Ursa Minor) and the Earth has passed the half of this way.

North Pole of the Ecliptic is located in the Draco constellation (Dragon). As it wraps itself around the northern hemisphere Draco is circumpolar, not far from the North Pole.



Draco is a very old and extensive constellation; Draco once held even more stars. Some cartographers draw the figure of Hercules with one foot resting on the head of Draco. The ancient story of the Dragon concerns the Golden Apples of the Hesperides and Heracles' Eleventh Labour. The other legend takes us to primordial times when the Titans still fought with the Olympic gods for the supremacy of the Universe.

The Persians have regarded Draco as a man-eating serpent called Azhdeha. The Egyptians considered it the Crocodile (Hippopotamus). In early Hindu worship, Draco is given the form of an alligator known as Shi-shu-mara.


The North Ecliptic Pole is marked in the sky by the Cat's Eye Nebula.

Now I shall consider a position of North Celestial pole in the Upper point.



The Upper Point


The upper position (point H) of the North celestial pole is located between the star Alkaid (Benetnasch) of constellation Ursa Major and the star Edasich of constellation Draco.


The position of North Celestial Pole in 4493 BC



Let's look at what remains of the ancient knowledge and memories connected to this constellation.

The Big Dipper (Ursa Major) was seen as a bear by the European and Mediterranean stargazers as well as the American people. This of course suggests a link to a once world-permeating culture. This mythological complex is associated with the Great Bear, with a star near it as a dog which is dangerous for the Universe.



Alkaid or Benetnasch (from a derivation of the Arabic Al Ka'id Banat Na'ash) is the last star in the Ursa Major (the Greater Bear). English translation: Chief of the Daughters of the Bier, Principal Mourner. The 'Principal Mourner' or 'hired mourners' of the children of Na'ssh, who were murdered by the Pole Star [Al Jadi].

Alkaid was known as "the destroyer of nations" by Islamic astrologers. Experience has shown that many human lives are to be mourned. In accordance with adopted belief of ancient times, this fixed star is supposed to be bound up with the realm of the dead and is therefore associated with death and mourning.



Edasich is the orange star in the Draco (Dragon). The Arabic name for Edasich is Adh-Dhikh (The hyena). The Ancients said that when a comet was here, poison was scattered over the world. By the Cabalists it is associated with the 13th Tarot Trump "Death".


Now you can see what the very gloomy memories of the past cluster round this spot.


Pyramid Texts

In this book I shall use the quotations from the so-called Pyramid Texts (http://www.pyramidtexts.com/).
In Egypt, on the desert plateau of Saqqara 10 miles southeast of the Great Pyramid, five very similar pyramids have survived for some forty-two centuries. They are filled inside with over four thousand vertical columns of hieroglyphs, cut into their solid rock walls. These are the Pyramid Texts which appear quite suddenly in just two centuries between 2356 BC and 2152 BC. They are found mostly in the 5th Dynasty pyramid of King Un-is and the 6th Dynasty pyramids of Teti, Pepi I, Merenr'a and Pepi II.



The Age of Orion


"This day I called me the first-created [Sunday]."
— The Book of the Secrets of Enoch


Now we will consider the point of Vernal equinox.

One of the two points at which the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator.

This astronomical event, determined by the precession, happened April 26, 4493 BC (Sunday) when the Vernal Equinox Sun was in the conjunction with the Crossing point of the Galactic Equator (Milky Way), Ecliptic, and the Celestial Equator in Taurus (above the Orion, between the Gemini and Taurus). This is a very rare astronomical alignment. This conjunction initialized the movement of the Sun out of the Age of Gemini and into the Age of Taurus.

In 4493BC the line of Vernal equinox (0h) passed through the constellation Orion (near the star Bellatrix). It was the Age of Orion.


The Age of Orion


Vernal Equinox 4493 BC



"O King, you are this great star, the companion of Orion,
who traverses the sky with Orion, who navigates the Duat with Osiris;
you ascend from the East of the sky..."
— Utterance 466, Pyramid Texts


This quoting from the Pyramid Texts speaks about a star which is located in the cross point of three lines, at the top of celestial pyramid (where the Sun is in the sky chart).

Sun blazes as a torch in the lifted hand of Orion, above his head. And on an ancient Egyptian picture, the Sun above a head of the god Re is represented.

The Bull (Taurus) is in the right side of the Milky Way, and the Twins (Gemini) is in the left side.


Orion (The Giant, The Hunter)
The constellation's stormy character appeared in early Hindu, and perhaps even in earlier Euphratean days, and is seen everywhere among classical writers with allusions to its direful influence. The hunt and huntsman represent death; active participation, desire, the pursuit of worldly ends. The Wild Huntsman with his pack of hounds is Death in pursuit of his victim.

Orion is surely one of the most important constellations, as it contains one of the nearest and most active stellar nurseries in the Milky Way. There where the stars are born.



The Crossing Point


I have decided to look in more detail that is in this Crossing point. The astronomical program has enlarged the image and there I have seen



"...a Star for which the gods bow down, because of which the Universe trembles"
— Utterance 328, The Pyramid Text.


Actually the astronomical program has drawn the Ancient Egyptian symbol of Duat - the star within a circle!

I have seen that the Sun (the circle in the sky chart) at the moment of Vernal equinox 4493 BC moved through the Crossing point of 3 lines (Galactic Equator, Ecliptic, and the Celestial Equator) and in this small area (less than 1°) there are 3 stars. These stars are very exactly (up to 0.5°) mark the position of the Crossing point.

Some astronomical data of these three stars (constellation Taurus):


  Star 1 Star 2 Star 3
Tycho catalog number TYC 1863-2515-1 TYC 1867-1568-1 TYC 1867-896-1
SAO number SAO 77750 SAO 77769 SAO 77790
Henry Draper number HD 39970 HD 40065 HD 40241
Visual magnitude 6.04 7.18 7.35
Johnson B-V colour index 0.341 -0.089 1.040
RA (epoch J2000.0) 5h 56m 56.1182s 5h 57m 36.9153s 5h 58m 36.7367s
Dec (epoch J2000.0) +24° 14' 58.911" +24° 36' 46.545" +24° 47' 52.075"


From the Glossary of astronomical terms:

Equatorial coordinate system
A coordinate system in which the fundamental reference circle is the celestial equator and the zero point is the vernal equinox. The coordinates are named right ascension (RA) and declination (Dec). Precession of the equinoxes causes right ascension and declination to change slowly over time. Therefore, to correctly specify the position of a celestial object, one must give not only its right ascension and declination, but also the epoch for which those coordinates apply.


A logarithmic brightness scale used to measure the brightness of celestial objects - the higher the number, the fainter the object. The brightest stars in the sky are roughly magnitude 1; the faintest stars visible to the naked eye from a dark location are roughly magnitude 6.5. A change of 5 magnitudes corresponds to a change of a factor of 100 in the brightness of an object.

Astronomically, the "Duat" is located in the sky between the constellations of Orion, Gemini (Twins), and Taurus (Bull).



As Above, So Below


“Art thou not aware, O Asclepios, that Egypt is the image of heaven,
or rather, that it is the projection below of the order of things above?”

— Hermes Trismegistus


You may already know that many of the great monuments of early civilizations were astronomically aligned. The accurate cardinal orientation of the Great Pyramids at Giza in Egypt is outstanding examples. Giza seems to have been designed with very strict geometrical rules laid down from the start. If we want to understand the monuments of ancient Egypt, we have to think in terms of heaven and earth. "As above, so below", as the ancient hermetic texts put it.

The ancient Egyptians called the region of the heavens, of which Orion is a part, and which appears to be the pattern for the ground at Giza — the Duat.

Now it is possible to compare this astronomical picture with its terrestrial copy.



The sunrise on the Vernal Equinox April 26, 4493 BC

The three stars of Duat and the three pyramids of Giza


Day of Vernal Equinox on April 26, 4493 BC (Sunday). As above, so below. The sun shines as a gold capstone on the top of a celestial pyramid. Three lines (Galactic Equator, Ecliptic, and Celestial Equator) have formed the image of the celestial pyramid (but it is tilted).


Pay attention to three giant causeways that run from three main pyramids in the different directions and to three lines in the sky. These causeways seemingly do not lead anywhere.


Three small pyramids (near the Pyramid of Cheops) form the line parallel to a line of horizon. And other three small pyramids (near the Pyramid of Menkaure) form the perpendicular line. These lines determine a horizontal coordinate system (see the webpage "Secret of Pyramids", the image "9 Pyramids").

Horizontal coordinate system
A coordinate system in which the fundamental reference circle is the horizon and the zero point is the north point. The coordinates are named altitude (h) and azimuth (A).

The colour of the covering of pyramids corresponds to the colour of stars. This is a symbolic architectural model of the Duat sky region.


Ecliptic and the Galactic Equator also are now intersected approximately in this point. At present the Sun passes through this point at the day of Summer solstice. The exact conjunction of the Summer solstice Sun and this point there was in 1997 AD (when "Osiris began to speak").



The Giza Pyramids


I have decided to compare this region of the sky with its terrestrial copy.

The main data of Giza pyramids:

The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops)
Original Height: 146.6 m (Current Height: 138.75 m)
Length of Side: 230.37 m
Angle: 51°51'(or 51°50'40")


The Pyramid of Khafre (Chefren)
Height: 143.51 m
Length of Side: 215.26 m
Angle: 53°10' (or 53°12')


The Pyramid of Mycerinus (Menkaure)
Height: 66.4 m
Length of Side: 108.66 m
Angle:51°20' (or 50.71°)


The Giza pyramids plan


  • The sizes of all pyramids complex are recorded in the Royal Egyptian Cubit, with the value of 20.620 inches or 0.52375 meters.

  • The size of all pyramids complex is equal to 30 seconds of latitude (30 seconds of arc).

  • The Great Pyramid is located at 29 degrees, 58 minutes, and 51.06 seconds north latitude, and 31 degrees, 9 minutes, and 0.0 seconds east longitude.

Here you can see one small pyramid near the Second pyramid (Pyramid of Chefren). This is the fourth pyramid. Now remnants of this satellite pyramid are present on the south side of the Second pyramid.



The Fourth Star


"The thing that hath been, it is that which shall be;
... and there is no new thing under the sun."

— Ecclesiastes 1:9.


I have decided to look; there is a fourth small star in this point? It was a sight to see! The astronomical program has enlarged the image and I have seen the fourth star. And the position of this very small star corresponds to the position of the small pyramid near the Second pyramid!



4-th Star

(The small pyramid near the Second Pyramid)


Some astronomical data of this star (constellation Taurus):


Star 4

XZ Catalog number 7965
Herald-Bobroff Astroatlas Chart C-34
Sky Atlas 2000.0 Chart 5
Visual Magnitude 7.8
RA (epoch J2000.0) 5h 58m 0.29s
Dec (epoch J2000.0) +24° 37' 2.01"


These stars are invisible to the naked eye! It is possible that somebody can see only one star.

Well, now we have - the half-minutes on the Earth and the half-degrees in the sky. Having compared a mutual position of the four pyramids (latitude and longitude) with these four stars (altitude and azimuth), I have got the result:


Four pyramids of Giza are built as model of four stars of the Duat sky region
in a scale of one to sixty!

(a scale of one second to one minute; or 1:60)


Eh, it is a well known scale. The ancient civilization had constructed at Giza an exact replica of the Duat sky region. The Duat stars have provided the model for the complex of Giza pyramids, of this mysterious ancient temple. The Giza Pyramids serve one ultimate purpose, to indicate the Gateway to the Underworld (Duat) by pure geometry. In my opinion, the builders were part of a Global Earth Civilization that broke up about 6,500 years ago, and the massive Giza Pyramids are their relics that survived from the end of their civilization. They have warned us.

Well, this explains the purpose of all ten pyramids of the Giza plateau:

  • Four pyramids are built as model of four stars of the Duat sky region.

  • Three small pyramids near the Pyramid of Cheops, and three small pyramids near the Pyramid of Menkaure determine lines of the horizontal coordinate system (altitude and azimuth).



The Great Celestial Eye


Now let's look at the image of all the northern hemisphere sky on April 26, 4493 BC. This is a very interesting image, it reminds a human eye.



Great Celestial Eye (Eye of Horus)


On this image:

  • The great circle is the Celestial Equator. The Galactic Equator is marked by letter 'G'. The Ecliptic is marked by letter 'E'.

  • The North Celestial Poleis in the center of image. The North Ecliptic Pole is marked above it and the North Galactic Pole is marked below. North Ecliptic Pole is in the constellation Draco. North Galactic Pole is in the constellation Coma Berenices (Berenice's Hair). All three poles are on one straight line.

  • The Sun is on the right, in the crossing point of the Galactic Equator, Ecliptic, and the Celestial Equator.

This image created by the astronomical program resembles the ancient Egyptian image "Eye of Horus" or "Eye of Re". The Eye of Horus came from a myth of his battles where Horus has lost his right eye.

The constellation associated with Osiris, Orion, stands at the corner of a Great Celestial Eye.


The crossing of the Galactic equator and Ecliptic form a well known figure "Fish's Bladder". This geometrical construction was used in antiquity.


The Vesica Piscis or fish’s bladder is formed by the intersection
of two circles or spheres whose centers exactly touch.
The shape of the human eye itself is a Vesica Piscis.
The ratio of the axes of the form is the square root of 3.


Now we will consider a position of North Celestial pole in the Lower point.


to be continued...




The most amazing study of the Calendar ever published!

Don't miss the discovery!

The Mystery of the Calendar

The Message to the Unborn

by Vladimir Pakhomov

S y n o p s i s

In this book, Vladimir Pakhomov unearths fascinating evidence of the scientific advancement of an antediluvian culture that met with an untimely demise. Page by page and chapter by chapter, he takes us through a keen analysis of ancient calendar to discover the amazing lost history of our race. We are led to understand the intelligence and ingenuity of a people who, while faced with extinction, found the means to communicate over the millennia to warn us that the apocalypse that destroyed their race will occur again.

Vladimir Pakhomov has deciphered the ancient cryptogram. For the first time in our history the Message of an ancient advanced civilization has been discovered! The Message contains information about a global catastrophe in the history of the Earth, and about the reasons and the method of prediction of similar catastrophes.

The eBook is now complete! (Parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)

Language: English

Number of Pages: over 950 (~ the paper pages, A5 format)
over 610 + video, animation, music, voice.

ISBN 0-9580150-1-5

Publisher: Xerostar Holdings (Australia)




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Updated: June 16, 2013

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